AFbouillardI have attempted to remain open minded throughout the investigation of Air France Flight 447.  I had hoped that  the Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses (BEA) would come forward and present the facts as known.

The evidence shows this is not the case and as a matter of fact, the only reason Thales pitots are still on the Airbus airplanes is for the protection of  European companies and their European labor/workers.  One would think that Boeing might want to update their complaint with the World Trade Organization (WTO)?

The European aviation industry is more concerned with their own business interest and preserving jobs in Europe than safe air travel.  The Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses (BEA) has lost all creditability as an investigative body.

This posting only addresses the now famous “Three Pitots”.  From the Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses (BEA) interim report (English version):

Page 1 (Forward) (Emphasis mine)

This document has been prepared on the basis of the initial information gathered during the investigation, without any analysis and – given the continuing absence of wreckage, the flight recorders, radar tracks and direct testimony – without any description of the circumstances of the accident. Some of the points covered may evolve with time. Nothing in the presentation of this interim report or in the points that are raised therein should be interpreted as an indication of the orientation or conclusions of the investigation.

Page 21: 1.6.7 Checks and maintenance of the Pitot probes (Emphasis mine)

The Pitot probes and maintenance actions are described in the operator’s maintenance manual.

The Pitot probes are subject to a daily visual inspection by a mechanic, who checks their general condition. The crew performs the same type of check before each flight.

During Type C checks, the following operations are performed on the Pitot probes:

• cleaning of the complete probe using compressed air (“blowing” operation),

• cleaning of the drains with a specific tool,

• test and check of probe heating by the standby electrical power supply system,

• check of the sealing of the circuits.

In the case of speed inconsistencies being reported by the crew, corrective actions are the same as those in the Type C checks.

Page 54: 1.16.2.5 Partial conclusion (Emphasis mine)

At this stage of the investigation, the messages analysed allow us to conclude that various monitoring processes were triggered. At least one of them corresponds to an inconsistency in the speed measurements

Page 65: 1.18.2 Brief history of the Pitot probes on Airbus A330/A340 (Emphasis mine)

The conditions under which the probes that equip the Airbus A330/A340 have evolved are being examined by the investigators.

In 2001, following some inconsistent speed problems, it was decided to replace, before the end of December 2003, the Rosemount probes that then equipped the A330 by Goodrich 0851 HL probes or Thales C16195AA probes.20

Service Bulletins, issued in 2007 then revised in 2008, had recommended the replacement on A330/A340 airplanes of C16195AA probes by C16195BA probes.

On the date of the accident, Airbus A330 / A340 aircraft were equipped with three standards of Pitot probe:

• BF Goodrich Aerospace probes, type 0851 HL,

• Thales Avionics probes of types C16195AA(22) and C16195BA.

It should be noted that any improvements that this change of standard could bring to cases of speed inconsistencies encountered in cruise had not been formally established.

In February 2009, at the request of Airbus, Thales carried out a comparative study of the behaviour in icing conditions at high altitude of the two standards, C16195AA and C16195BA. This study concluded that the C16195BA standard performed better, without however it being possible to reproduce on the ground all the conditions that could be encountered in reality.

At the end of April 2009 at the suggestion of Airbus, Air France initiated an in-service assessment on Airbus A330 of the C16195BA standard. The first batch of C16195BA Pitot probes had been received one week before the F-GZCP accident.

As shown in my previous postings (here, here, and here) Air France, Airbus, Thales, and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), have known about the pitot icing problems and corresponding  “unrealiable airspeed” indicators since 1994. This writer presents the following “open sourced” unclassified documents showing their past involvement, dishonesty and I would recommend that le Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses (BEA) issue a followup interim report as soon as possible.

As a hint for other upcoming LuckyBogey postings, I would highly suggest that le Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses (BEA) inform Air France (1) to double check their emergency aircrew documented procedures for stall warnings during cruise, and (2) review their aircrew training materials for upset recovery procedures.

As reported on June 26, 2009, (AF Flight 447: NTSB Investigating Two Recent Incidents Involving Pitots), this writer fully expects the NTSB to conduct their separate investigation in a factual and professional manner of the subject matter.   Subject to outside inference from other EU Governments, and as a French governmental agency, Le Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses (BEA) does not have the political “cover” to perform an independent aircraft investigation as required by law.


pitot_pic



adeline_logo

Executive Summary 21.06.2005 15:24

The objective of ADELINE is to develop new architectures and technologies of air data systems for implementation in new aircraft on the horizon of 2010.

Actual air data equipment is composed of a large number of individual probes and pressure sensors. This equipment delivers vital parameters for the safety of the aircraft’s flight such as air speed, angle of attack and altitude. The loss of these data can cause aircraft crashes especially in case of probe icing.

The main project targets are:

  • to reduce present equipment costs by 50 % including purchasing and exploitation costs,
  • to increase aircraft’s safety by drastically reducing air data system failure.

These targets will be achieved by developing simpler, more reliable and safer equipment than the American systems that dominate the market.

The scientific objectives of ADELINE are:

  • Identification of innovative air data system architectures.
  • Development of innovative measuring concepts to acquire all information with only two different types of probes instead of three for competitors’ solutions.
  • Development of breakthrough technologies:

o      New probe material and associated nanomaterial coating in order to reduce abrasion and ice adherence.

o      Innovative self regulated anti-icing technology based on the use of positive temperature coefficient (PTC) ceramics.

o      New packaging technologies for MEMS pressure sensor to allow the integration of the sensor within the probe.

o      Development of a self-test for pressure sensor.

To achieve these objectives, a consortium of eight partners with all the required skills has been established as follows: two SMEs, one industrial, three academic institutes and two research centres.

The project is organised in five work packages which will allow:

  • the definition of the system architecture
  • the development of innovative principles and technologies
  • the development and the flight tests of two different functional mock-ups.

The duration of the project is 36 40 months. (Per Updated CORDIS Source Below)

Funding: AERO-2003-1.3.1.1l Specific Targeted Research Project New aircraft concepts and breakthrough technologies – 2130000 Euros — ist-world.org

Updated Sources:

CORDIS – FP6 Project Fact Sheet

FAQs for European Commission FP6 Research Programme (pdf)

6th EU Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6) (pdf)

Project details
Project Reference: 516165 Contract Type: Networks of Excellence
Start Date: 2005-01-15 End Date: 2008-05-14
Duration: 40 months Project Status: Completed
Project Cost: 3.32 million euro Project Funding: 2.13 million euro


Fig7_D1_Existing_architectures_rev_00

Deliverable D1 : Existing architectures synthesis (pdf)

Page 1

Section 1.2 (Role of air data system in aircraft (synthesis of air data computations from probes measurements, including SSEC laws considerations, failure annunciations and environmental constraints)

The role of the air data system in aircraft is to measure the aircraft air parameters by measuring the characteristic of the air mass which surrounds it.

The main physical characteristics measured are the static pressure (Ps), the total pressure (Pt) and the impact temperature (Ti), and angles of attack and sideslip. All flight parameters can be computed from those five measurements, in particular: the indicated airspeed Vc, total air temperature (TAT), the true air speed (TAS), the altitude or height (H), the altitude rate (Vz), the Mach Number (M), the true angle of attack (AOA), the true angle of sideslip (SSA).

Ps, Pt, TAT, AOA and SSA are measured by the mean of ports or probes exposed to the ambient air in which an aircraft is flying. Static pressures are generally measured with flush ports, whereas total pressure is measured with pitot tube or pitot-static probe. Temperature and angles are measured using probes exposed to the air stream. Probes are sensitive to air flow . Some probes can be sensitive to several flight conditions at one time.

Most probes are heated (including temperature probe) to prevent icing that may impact severely the measurement.

Fig8_D1_Existing_architectures_rev_00

Page 9

Section 1.3.2 (Total Pressure Measurement)

Airspeed and height errors occur if either the Pitot tube or the Static vent are blocked.

The pressure probes can become blocked in flight by ice or volcano ashes and on the ground, either by bugs, or ice.

Blockages may lead the air data system to over or under estimate aircraft airspeed or aircraft height. The effect of port blockages is mainly dependant on the air data system architecture (number of redundant channels, number of probes etc …)

As an example, it happens to a BOEING 727 crew to see the aircraft speed increasing in climbing phase because the Pitot tube was plugged by ice. The crew made there best to reduce the aircraft airspeed. The aircraft pitch became very high, the aircraft entered stall conditions and started to spin. They recovered normal conditions 20 mn later with major damages to the aircraft.

As a conclusion, Pitot and Static probes must be protected from icing, internal water drain traps must be installed to allow water drainage and air data systems must be designed with sufficient redundancy to avoid the above situation to occur.

Fig9_D1_Existing_architectures_rev_00

Page 12

1.3.5.1 (Flight icing)

Flight icing may be generated by the impact of water droplets (super cooled unstable droplets at negative temperature) on the aircraft structure. Those droplets freeze on impact on aircraft surfaces. This phenomenon can be altered by the presence of ice crystals (pure ice crystals from cirrus clouds are less dangerous than mixed with super cooled droplets).

The physics of the phenomena is highly complex and has been extensively investigated and simulated. The main factors are:

  • Temperature of the droplets.
  • Size range of the droplets : mean volumic diameter (M. V. D.) typically 5 to 300microns).
  • Liquid water content (L. W. C) : typically .I to 5 g / m3.
  • Aircraft velocity. − Aircraft shapes.

Water droplets diameter (MVD), aircraft velocity and geometry define the wetted area. Air temperature, aircraft geometry, and air liquid water content (LWC g/m3) define the ice amount and shape.

Ice can cause: a reduction of lift, a reduction of stall angle, an increase in drag, a modification in longitudinal stability or an increase in weight. Rime ice, in some conditions, may also cause an increase in lift at low incidences. Even a small amount of roughness on airfoil leading edge can decrease stall characteristics. Four types of ice are generally distinguished : rime ice, glaze ice, run back ice and Mixed ice.

For any type, the accretion shapes are extremely different. Rime ice : Rime ice is a milky, opaque ice, characteristic of cold temperature and low LWC (Liquid Water Content) conditions.

Glaze ice : Glaze ice is transparent or translucent. It is characteristic of « high » temperatures,

high LWC conditions. Run back ice : Run back ice looks transparent. It is formed by water freezing downstream from impingement location. Run back ice can lead to icing in non conventional locations.

Many principles can be used for detection. At least two categories can be mentioned : Means of detecting ice accretion on the aircraft (or on critical surfaces). Means of detecting icing conditions defined as “Total temperature below 10° C and visible moisture”. Ice accretion detection principles can be:

  • Visual cues an board aircraft
  • Vibrating cylinders
  • On board cameras (at various wavelengths including infra-red)
  • Optical , pneumatic or electromagnetic obstruction
  • Ultrasonic, piezo -electric or electromagnetic sensors on the flush surface
  • Indirect methods linked with aircraft performance or boundary layer turbulence

Fig16_D1_Existing_architectures_rev_00



Deliverable D7: 6-months activity & management report n°1 PUBLIC Version (pdf)

Page 1-2 Section 1 (EXECUTIVE PUBLISHABLE SUMMARY)

The objective of ADELINE is to develop new architectures and technologies of air data systems for implementation in new aircraft on the horizon of 2010.

Actual air data equipment is composed of a large number of individual probes and pressure sensors. This equipment delivers vital parameters for the safety of the aircraft’s flight such as air speed, angle of attack and altitude. The loss of these data can cause aircraft crashes especially in case of probe icing.

The main project targets are: to reduce present equipment costs by 50 % including purchasing and exploitation costs, to increase aircraft’s safety by drastically reducing air data system failure.

These targets will be achieved by developing simpler, more reliable and safer equipment than the American systems that dominate the market.

The scientific objectives of ADELINE are: Identification of innovative air data system architectures, development of innovative measuring concepts to acquire all information with only two different types of probes instead of three for competitors’ solutions, development of breakthrough technologies.

Section 2 (MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS DURING THE REPORTING PERIOD)

The first six months of the ADELINE program has been very productive. The objective of this sixth month period was to kick-off the program, to analyze existing aircraft air data system architectures, to propose and compare innovative architectures, to establish the technological state of the art of all technical area involved in probes development and to specify requirements for innovative probes development. These goals have been achieved.

The demanded deliverables have also been produced by the consortium : existing architecture synthesis (D1), architectures critical analysis report (D2), technological state of the art analysis (D3), Innovative architectures comparison report (D4), specification of new equipments (D5). These deliverables are available on ADELINE web site http://www.adeline-aero.org/. The ADELINE secured web site constitute the deliverable D6 of the project.

The communication within the project is very good and the partners’ participation to meetings has been fully adequate with the need.

The kick-off meeting was held in Toulouse (France) the 25th of February 2005.

A second technical progress meeting was held in Vendôme (France) the 23rd of June 2005 for THALES to present results on architectures analysis to the consortium for RWTH to presents the technological state of the art for all ADELINE research area. Trials on materials and coating have been decided during this meeting.

THALES, ATCT and TUB have presented some idea to commence the research on pressure sensor packaging, new probe concepts and de-icing techniques. The Adeline-web site has been presented by TUB. THALES INT facilities were presented to the consortium to better understand what is the challenge to produce thousand kinds of probes for the helicopter and aircraft industries.

A meeting with AIRBUS, an ADELINE user club member, has been held in Toulouse (France) the 3rd of May. We have presented the first ADELINE conclusions on aircraft air data system architectures to AIRBUS and we have got constructive remarks from it. AIRBUS has contributed a lot to D1 production.

Next technical progress meeting is scheduled in Berlin (Deutschland) the 14th and 15th September 2005 to discuss the technological bricks to develop within the end of the year.

The technical meeting in Berlin (Deutschland) will be the last one of year 2005.

The next consortium meeting will be the annual review. During this formal review the project results will be presented to the EC and the user club (AIRBUS, DASSAULT , EUROCAE).

Fig18_D1_Existing_architectures_rev_00



Deliverable D15 : Technological implementation plan (pdf)

Page 5 Section 1.1 (Executive Summary) (Emphasis mine)

The objective of ADELINE is to develop new architectures and technologies of air data systems for implementation in new aircraft on the horizon of 2010.

Actual air data equipment is composed of a large number of individual probes and pressure sensors. This equipment delivers vital parameters for the safety of the aircraft’s flight such as air speed, angle of attack and altitude. The loss of these data can cause aircraft crashes especially in case of probe icing. The main project targets are:

  • to reduce present equipment costs by 50 % including purchasing and exploitation costs,
  • to increase aircraft’s safety by drastically reducing air data system failure.

These targets will be achieved by developing simpler, more reliable and safer equipment than the American systems that dominate the market.

The scientific objectives of ADELINE are:

  • to identify of an innovative architecture for the air data system in order to minimise the amount of equipment while optimising reliability and safety of the system
  • to develop innovative measuring principles for probes that can overcome the drawbacks in earlier designs and that allow the measurement of the five required air parameters (static pressure, total pressure, total temperature, angle of attack and sideslip angle) with the minimum number of  probes.
  • to identify and use new materials and coatings for the probes to increase abrasive resistance to increase lifetime as well as to maintain constant lifetime performance. The new material should replace the existing material containing Beryllium, which is a harmful material in excessive concentration. The new coating should also be able to reduce ice adhesion.
  • to identify and use new de- and anti-icing technologies using new innovative heating elements. Common probes are heated by resistive wire and do not regulate the heating power unless the applied voltage is regulated. In order to improve the efficiency of the probe’s heating process new innovative PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heating elements are used.
  • to develop a new packaging technology for the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) pressure sensor to allow the integration of the sensor in the probe. In this harsh environment the silicon sensor is exposed to high temperature gradients, to sand and to humidity. To merge the MEMS device into the probe, the existing package protective functions will be improved with additional package functionality e.g. acting as an air duct and particle filter / ice protection unit.
  • to develop a new auto test for the pressure sensor to detect erroneous information provided due to sensor drift or to the presence of water (or ice) on the sensitive membrane.

pitot_pic1Page 7

The scientific and technological prospects of ADELINE include: two airborne mock-ups allowing the measurement of the dynamic pressure and the angle of attack thanks to new measurement concepts.

Those probes will be made of appropriate materials to mitigate the risk of chemical corrosion (accelerated by overheating of the probes on ground), abrasion by solid or liquid particles (volcanic ashes, rain) of external surfaces of the probes.

The new measurement concepts will permit to mitigate the risk of ingestion of water through the pressure holes of the probes, risk of freezing of water and then of blockage of the tubing, risk of blockage of the drain holes by solid particles, risk of blocking of the external rotating parts by sand or dust in the ball bearings and risk of ingestion of water through the ball bearings (case of vane of the angle of attack sensor).

Tubo_de_PitotPage 10

Section 1.4.1 (Community added value and contribution to EU policies)

The improvement of flight safety with respect to the loss of air data information is a topic that retains the attention of air data equipment manufacturers, aircraft manufacturers and airliners.

ADELINE addresses a European problem through the development of new air data probes based on new measurements principles that requires European cooperation as all technologies are not available at a single national level.

THALES Avionics is the best candidate for probes and sensors development, Cti is specialised in fast prototyping of cast prototyping & standard casting techniques of almost any alloy, the RWTH Aachen University is a large university making research in several domains including mechanical engineering. In particular, RWTH makes fundamental research in the area of strength of materials and their mechanical behaviour. As such, RWTH contribution is of up most importance to select new probe materials and coating.

VZLU has a well-known high speed aerodynamics departments for aerodynamic measurement of A/C models and its parts. In the VZLU facilities will be evaluated the ADELINE mock-ups within a wide range of Mach numbers and angles of attack.

TUB is one of the largest technical universities in Germany that has technical excellence in chip packaging technology. TUB´s role in the consortium is to provide access to technologies for MEMS sensor system integration and reliability tests for the electronic components and push the technologies to their limits with respect to the target sensor packaging requirements.

ATCT has developed an innovative new thermal chip, which overcomes the reliability and performance problems associated with today’s PTC technology as well as the cost and safety issues associated with conventional filament technology. ATCT expertise in PTC technology is paramount to improve probes anti-icing performance and improve probes reliability.

The CRANFIELD university in UK has several facilities, which are unique in Europe. In particular they have atmospheric icing tunnels, which are essential for the testing of the new ADELINE probe concepts in aeronautical environment.

Finally, SAFIRE, a spin-off company of Meteo France, devoted to the in-flight testing of equipments for researchers, will airborne the ADELINE mock-ups on one of its aircraft to evaluate the in-flight behavior of the new probe concepts.

A330PitotStaticProbePage 11

Section 1.4.2 (Contribution to Community social objectives)

The new probes, proposed in the framework of ADELINE, will allow the improvement of the safety of the flights thanks to: a minimization of the length of the tubing in the air data systems, a self-cleaning concept for total pressure probe (fluidic pressure probe), a concept stationary AOA probe with no rotating parts and an electronical system for the drift detection of the pressure sensor. In addition, these probes will be easiest to install (less tubing) and easiest to maintain.

Today, THALES Avionics american competitors gain more and more market shares because of the high quality, high reliability and low cost of their products. Thanks to ADELINE, THALES Avionics will propose, in the future, a new air data product range with improved performances and advanced features.

The transportation industry has already proven its interest to these new concepts, and, if the expected performances are demonstrated, THALES Avionics will increase its market shares and thus will be able to create jobs in services related to air data systems production. Industrial ADELINE partners will take advantage of this expansion.

Page 18

Summary:  The pressure probes can be blocked in flight by ice, dust or volcano ashes and on ground, either by bugs, dust, or ice.

Blockages may lead the air data system to over or under estimate aircraft airspeed. The effect of port blockages is mainly dependant on the air data system architecture (number of redundant channels, location of drain hole, etc …)

Contrary to the Pitot probe, THALES proposes the concept of a total pressure probe, called “fluidic total pressure probe”, with an open tube that will avoid the accumulation of water and particles into the tube and will therefore avoid the block up of the probe. The “stagnation point” is obtained by separating the initial airflow thanks to a spike. The two flows airspeeds cancel each other behind the spike.

The principle of this new total pressure measurement was validated in wind tunnel at low speed, the results of this first mock-up was encouraging.

The design has now to be improved to reach the target performances thanks to numerical simulation and hence test at different speeds and incidences of improved mock-ups manufactured with CTI rapid prototyping facilities.

Page 30

Summary:  One objective of ADELINE is to demonstrate that it is possible to develop pressure probes with the electronic integrated in the probe. Indeed, the integration of the electronic in the probe will allow suppressing the tubing necessary today to connect the probe to the air data module that converts the air pressure into a digital value.

The presence of tubing is a permanent risk for the navigation system : the tubing can plug because of the presence of water and major accidents have already occurred due to the non detection of connection failures (in a total pressure measurement channel, a failure in the air tubing connection leads to an under-estimation of the true total pressure and thus under-estimation of the aircraft speed that can lead to a crash).

Page 60

Summary:  Recent accidents on commercial aircraft can be linked to air data probe icing. One of the objectives of the project is to improve the anti-and de-icing technologies. An axis of research will be the development of anti-adherent coating materials.

Some highly innovative materials like nano-structured coating materials have promising characteristics. They are not only able to increase wear resistance but at the same time reduce the ice adhesion on the probe, to increase lifetime as well as to maintain constant lifetime performance.


Pitot_locations

Public Reports (Declassified)

D35 : Exploitation of flight tests report
Document to the article: D35_Exploitation_of_flight_tests_report-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:57

D34 : Flight Tests Report
Document to the article: D34_Flight_Tests_Report_-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:59

D33 : Requirements for new data integrated systems
Document to the article: D33_Requirements_for_new_data_integrated_systems_-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:56

D32 : 6 months activity and management report n°5
Document to the article: D32_6_months_activity_and_management_report_-_Public_version.pdf
24.03.2008 10:55

D31 : Groud test report
Document to the article: D31_Ground_test_report-public_version.pdf
D30 : Lifetime estimation report
Document to the article: D30_Lifetime_estimation_report_-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:59

D27 : 6 months activity and management report
Document to the article: D27_-_6_months_activity_and_management_report_-public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:56

D25 : brick assembly mock-up design and test reports
Document to the article: D25_brick_assembly_mock-up_design_and_test_reports_-_Public_version.pdf
30.08.2007 08:58

D23 : 6 months activity and management report
Document to the article: D23_-_6_months_activity_and_management_report_-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:58

D22 : 1rst annual project review minutes
Minutes of meeting of the first project annual review that took place the 14th, 15th and 16th of February 2006 in VAlence (FRANCE).
Document to the article: 1-D22_1rst_annual_project_review__minutes_-_Public_version.pdf
D19 : Coatings development & test report
The D19 deliverable constitutes the public version of the coating development and test report of the ADELINE project.
Document to the article: D19_Coating_development_and_test_report_-_Public_version.pdf
11.04.2006 08:39

D17- Second principle simulations and mock-up tests report
Document to the article: D17-_Second_principle_simulations_and_mock-up_tests_report_-_Public_version.pdf
05.09.2007 10:48

D16 – First principle simulations and mock-up tests report
Document to the article: D16_-_First_principle_simulations_and_mock-up_tests_report_-_Public_version.pdf
05.09.2007 10:47

D13 : Critical analysis and selection of technical bricks
Minutes of meeting of the first project annual review that took place the 14th, 15th and 16th of February 2006 in VAlence (FRANCE).
Document to the article: D13_-_Critical_analysis_and_selection_of_technical_bricks.pdf.pdf
16.07.2007 16:08

D15 : Technological Implementation Plan
The D15vdeliverable constitutes the technological implementation plan of the ADELINE project. Only part I and II are public. This document will not be downloaded in the CORDIS web site because this was only required for FP5 projects.
Document to the article: D15_Preliminary_Technological_Implementation_Plan_-_Public_version.pdf
D14 : 6 months activity & management report n°2
Activity report of the ADELINE consortium for the second period : June 2005 to January 2006
Document to the article: D14_6_months_activity_and_management_report_n_2_-_Public_version.pdf
11.04.2006 09:01

D10 : Candidate coating selection
Document to the article: D10_Candidate_coating_selection_-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:55

D9 : Candidate materials selection report
Document to the article: D9_-_Candidate_materials_selection_report_-_public_version.pdf
23.03.2008 17:57

D7 : 6 months activity & management report.
Activity report of the ADELINE consortium for the first period : January 2005 to June 2005
Document to the article: D7_6_months_activity_and_management_report_-_Public_version.pdf
30.09.2005 14:23

D3 : Technological state of the art synthesis
Document to the article: D3_Technological_state_of_the_art_synthesis_-public_version.pdf
D2 : Architectures critical analysis report
The present document constitutes the deliverable D2 of the ADELINE project. It is entitled “Architectures critical analysis report” and is the second deliverable of the WP1000 “Architecture Analysis”. The goal of this document is to analyse how each type of architecture identified in D1 (WP1100) can effectively satisfy all the ADS requirements, and then identify their weaknesses, limitations and expending capabilities.
Document to the article: 1-D2_Architecture_critical_analysis_report.pdf
10.02.2006 13:53

D1 : Existing architectures synthesis
The present document constitutes the deliverable D1 of the ADELINE project. It is entitled “Existing architectures synthesis” and is the first deliverable of the WP1000 “Architecture Analysis”. Air data systems are architectured in accordance with the aircraft mission. There are mainly three kinds of mission: – Civil aircraft : subsonic, FL 410, moderate environmental conditions and low angle of attack – Military aircraft : subsonic or supersonic, above FL 410, severe environmental conditions, high angle of attack – Helicopter : low airspeed , low altitude, severe environmental conditions, The ADELINE project will only deal with civil aircraft air data systems.
Document to the article: D1_Existing_architectures_rev_00.pdf

Seville2007


Update:  July 31, 2009 – See Washington Post: Airbus Recommends Airlines Replace Speed Sensors

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