Master, since it is the time of year for periwinkles,
If you like, parting the branches every night,
Never rousing up the echoes with rash footsteps,
We shall steal off into this wild valley in a mood
Of hushed reverie— just the three of us, two lovers
All alone— to spy on the secret solitude.
In the somber clearing, where the tree with its gnarled torso
After dark assumes a monstrous human form,
We shall leave the spent fires under the laburnum
With no shepherd there to keep the embers warm;
And, our ears extended for their muffled singing, keenly,
In the moonlit shadows, through the bushes, as we wait,
We may see the stealthy dancing of the satyrs
Which Alphesiboeus used to imitate.
©2001 by the University of Chicago
Victor Hugo – From Les Contemplations (1856)
Romanticism is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and natural history.
The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities, both new aesthetic categories. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, made of spontaneity a desirable character (as in the musical impromptu), and argued for a “natural” epistemology of human activities as conditioned by nature in the form of language and customary usage.
Romanticism reached beyond the rational and Classicist ideal models to elevate a revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl, and industrialism, and it also attempted to embrace the exotic, unfamiliar, and distant in modes more authentic than Rococo chinoiserie, harnessing the power of the imagination to envision and to escape.
The modern sense of a romantic character may be expressed in Byronic ideals of a gifted, perhaps misunderstood loner, creatively following the dictates of his inspiration rather than the mores of contemporary society.
Although the movement is rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which prized intuition and emotion over Enlightenment rationalism, the ideologies and events of the French Revolution laid the background from which both Romanticism and the Counter-Enlightenment emerged. The confines of the Industrial Revolution also had their influence on Romanticism, which was in part an escape from modern realities; indeed, in the second half of the 19th century, “Realism” was offered as a polarized opposite to Romanticism.
Romanticism elevated the achievements of what it perceived as heroic individualists and artists, whose pioneering examples would elevate society. It also legitimized the individual imagination as a critical authority, which permitted freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas.
In a basic sense, the term “Romanticism” has been used to refer to certain artists, poets, writers, musicians, as well as political, philosophical and social thinkers of the late 18th and early to mid 19th centuries. It has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and social trends of that era. Despite this general usage of the term, a precise characterization and specific definition of Romanticism have been the subject of debate in the fields of intellectual history and literary history throughout the twentieth century, without any great measure of consensus emerging.
Arthur Lovejoy attempted to demonstrate the difficulty of this problem in his seminal article “On The Discrimination of Romanticisms” in his Essays in the History of Ideas (1948); some scholars see romanticism as essentially continuous with the present, some see in it the inaugural moment of modernity, some see it as the beginning of a tradition of resistance to Enlightenment rationalism—a Counter-Enlightenment—and still others place it firmly in the direct aftermath of the French Revolution. An earlier definition comes from Charles Baudelaire: “Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject nor exact truth, but in the way of feeling.
Many intellectual historians have seen Romanticism as a key movement in the Counter-Enlightenment, a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment. Whereas the thinkers of the Enlightenment emphasized the primacy of deductive reason, Romanticism emphasized intuition, imagination, and feeling, to a point that has led to some Romantic thinkers being accused of irrationalism.
Guardian – By Ian Jack
In 1937, five boys were famously snapped standing outside Lord’s. But who were they, what were they doing there – and what happened to them? The answer is surprising . . .
…Some things will never be known. We can’t know if the man with the camera asked the local boys to take up their position or if they just happened to be there; or if they jeered or sniggered at Dyson and Wagner; or if the photographer instructed Dyson to look slightly away from his lens; or if the moment made Dyson and Wagner acutely conscious of their appearance – their top hats, waistcoats, floral button-holes and canes. The photographer took pictures from at least two positions. At one point, according to later evidence, he asked the local boys to “stand a bit closer”. Dyson gripped the top of a stone bollard; Wagner continued to look away. The camera caught a stance that suggested majestic indifference to the poorer boys at their side, as though these boys were subjects as well as spectators.
The News Chronicle published the picture the next day on the front page, under the headline “Every picture tells a story”. A one-line caption identified only the event and location. According to Peter Wagner’s sister, when the Wagner family first saw it, “we probably laughed because they [the boys] both looked so fed up”. But in the years that followed, her amusement faded. Late last year she told me that the picture was known “for all the wrong reasons”. Like several others connected to it, she referred to it quite tetchily as “that photograph”; which is what happens when a loved one is transformed over seven decades – in newspapers, in magazines, on book jackets – into an anonymous symbol of arrogant privilege.
There are three popular misconceptions about the Lord’s photograph: that it shows Etonians; that it was taken by the celebrated documentary photographers Bert Hardy; and that the other boys in the picture are “scruffs”, “toughs” or “urchins”.
The Eton mistake crept in early; in August 1937 Life magazine in New York published a slightly different version of the same scene that identified the top-hatted boys as Etonians – a forgivable American ignorance of the small differences in dress code between the two schools. Neither the News Chronicle nor Life named the photographer, but he almost certainly took both shots. His name was Jimmy Sime and his career with London’s Central Press agency ran from 1914 to the middle 1960s. By 1937 he had covered all kinds of news events – Emmeline Pankhurst’s arrest, strikes, ship launches, statesmen at their desks. The Eton-Harrow match must have seemed a routine and unpromising assignment, but it yielded what became by far his most famous picture.
It surfaced again in Picture Post in 1941 – the year that Bert Hardy joined the magazine, which may help explain the idea that Hardy took it. This time it prefaced a piece calling for a reform of English education by AD (later Lord) Lindsay, then master of Balliol.
According to Lindsay’s opening sentence, the thing “most obviously wrong” with English schools was that one kind catered for the poor and another for the rich. None of the five boys or their schools was identified; the caption addressed the author’s argument rather than the picture’s subjects, stating: “Between the two groups is a barrier deliberately created by our system of education. Our task is to remove the barrier – to bring the public schools into the general scheme.” The News Chronicle’s headline, “Every picture tells a story”, had merely been suggestive. From Picture Post onwards, nobody could be in any doubt of the story being told. England was still hopelessly divided by class.
It seemed in the 30 or 40 years after the war that this was a problem on its way to being solved. Some of Picture Post’s vision of the post-war future had been realised: sharp class boundaries began to soften, social elites felt threatened, state schools sent increasing numbers of students to expanding universities. In the 70s, wealth was more equally distributed in Britain than ever before or since.
But then, neo-liberal economics intervened in the transformative epoch begun by Thatcher and continued by Blair, and the consequent disparities revived the old concerns. When the publisher Routledge wanted a cover image in 1993 for Michael Argyle’s The Psychology of Social Class, Sime’s picture, now getting on for 60 years old, was the image it chose. Five years later, Yale University Press did the same for David Cannadine’s Class in Britain, and by cropping poor Wagner out of the frame, made Dyson look singularly haughty.
Newspapers, needing to humanise feature articles about class division, turned to it eagerly. In 2008 and 2009, to pick two random years, Sime’s picture accompanied a Guardian feature on modern educational inequalities, a Sunday Telegraph column headlined “That old class system is still manufacturing bourgeois guilt”, and a piece in the Daily Telegraph arguing for wider access to Eton, mistaking Wagner and Dyson once again for Etonians…]
Málaga celebrates Paul and Jane Bowles
Week-long series of events marks centenary of birth of ‘The Sheltering Sky’ author
EL PAÍS – JAVIER RODRÍGUEZ MARCOS – Málaga
Málaga has just finished hosting a week-long celebration of the lives and work of Paul and Jane Bowles in commemoration of the centenary of the birth of the author of The Sheltering Sky.
The week was marked by a series of events, including the presentation of three new books about the couple, along with readings of their works, a special screening of Italian filmmaker Bernardo Bertolucci’s 1990 version of The Sheltering Sky, and the unveiling of a commemorative plinth at the city’s main cemetery, where Jane Bowles was buried. She spent the final years of her life in Málaga, dying there in 1973.
Jane Bowles was considered a writer’s writer, and her limited output was for many years out of print. Her novel, Two Serious Ladies, was published in 1943. The extreme rarity of the book, once it went out of print, has augmented its legend. When a London publisher wanted to reprint it in the early 1960s even Jane Bowles was unable to supply him with a copy.
Her collected works included the novel, a play called In the Summer House, and seven shorter pieces. Each dealt in some way with conflict between the weak and the strong, and the outcome was usually a draw.
Jane Bowles numbered among her admirers Truman Capote, who wrote an introduction to her collected works. Tennessee Williams, who spoke of her novel as “my favorite book,” and British writer Alan Sillitoe, who called it “a landmark in 20th-century American literature.”
Jane Bowles was overshadowed by her husband, whom she had married in 1938. He first visited Morocco in the early 1930s, and it changed his life. “As a result of this arbitrary action,” he wrote later, “my life was permanently altered.
“If Morocco had been then as it is now, I should have spent the summer and gone away, probably not to return. But Morocco in 1931 provided an inexhaustible succession of fantastic spectacles.”
Entranced by what he perceived to be the transcendental nature of North African life as well as by a society tolerant of homosexuality, Paul Bowles produced his first musical compositions.
After traveling around Europe and North Africa, Paul Bowles moved to Tangier in 1947, with Jane joining him a year later. The pair would spend the rest of their lives in the city, although Jane Bowles’ poor health, due to her alcoholism, saw her receive medical treatment in London and the United States, and finally, in a Málaga hospital.
Paul Bowles had moved to Tangier after receiving a commission to write a novel. Until then, he hadmade a living writing music and reviewing books and music.
The success of The Sheltering Sky, published in 1949, established Paul Bowles’ reputation, and the couple became an institution in Tangier, to be visited over the years by the wealthy and famous who passed through the city.
He described The Sheltering Sky as “an adventure story in which the actual adventures take place on two planes simultaneously: in the actual desert and in the inner desert of the spirit.”
The novel was on the New York Times bestseller list for 10 weeks following its publication in 1949. The initial critical response to the novel was mixed: it was called “gripping,” “puzzling” and “strange.”
Bowles denied that his works were autobiographical but was resigned to the fact that no one else agreed with him. Indeed, the idea of resignation to fate was central to much of Bowles’ work.
Though he traveled widely, Paul Bowles always returned to his beloved Tangier. Following his wife’s death in 1973, he became increasingly reclusive. In his book The Pillars of Hercules, Paul Theroux paints a poignant picture of an aged and ill Paul Bowles: an American in an Arab city, still enjoying the illicit pleasures of kif and hashish jam but with one eye firmly on the past.
“His world had shrunk to these walls,” writes Theroux, “But that was merely the way it seemed. It was an illusion. His world was within his mind, and his imagination was vast.”
Several Spanish publishers are taking advantage of the centenary of Paul Bowles’ birth to bring out new editions of the couple’s work in Spanish.
Art for obsolete nobles
EL PAÍS – FÉLIX DE AZÚA
During the Renaissance, it was not necessary to smash every city in Europe with the new siege artillery, in order to induce the good burghers to tear down their city walls. Only one or two cities needed to be bombarded, for all the others to realize that city walls were now mere ornaments.
We might say the same of ourselves, having seen the aftermath of the atomic bomb. It was enough to flatten Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No more bombs have gone off in populous places. It has not been necessary. After those two warnings, conditions changed. It was now obvious that the dream might come true, of a world free of human beings. Until Hiroshima, massacres could be only partial; now Judgment Day was no longer a Biblical myth. The consequences have been gigantic, and are only partially visible in terms such as “absence of God” and “end of history.” In a world where the extinction of the human species is a possibility, life cannot be the same.
In the superb exhibition that opened recently in the Prado Museum, entitled El arte del poder (or, The Art of Power), we see some of the finest pieces from the Spanish Royal Armory, and portraits showing off these same suits of armor. The wonderful steel-and-gold helmet that the Negrolis made for Charles V, the Medusa buckler also by the Negrolis — everything here is a real masterpiece.
But this ingenious work, this wealth of noble materials, had no use in war. The day of cavalry in suits or armor was long past. The cannon that decided battles such as Crécy in 1346 and Agincourt in 1415 were sonorous warnings. By the 16th century the new firearms easily perforated thin steel plate, and it was just at this time that the craze began for ornamental suits of armor, the spectacle of a fantastic chivalry in the trappings of medieval poetry, for merely symbolic use. We might say that these works formed part of the propaganda of the great monarchs, though they were seldom seen outside the palaces of the crowned heads who collected them.
The obsolescence of armor had some almost imperceptible aftershocks. One was the appearance of a new sort of equestrian portrait. In his portrait of Charles V at the battle of Mühlberg, Titian created a whole world to surround this armored king who, though belonging to the obsolete world of chivalry, is still the most powerful on the planet. He is placed in a soft meadow near a dense oak wood, in a romantic half-light that might be dawn or dusk. Perhaps the painter meant to suggest that the Lutheran sun was setting.
Until that time, equestrian portraits had never been wrapped in a world of their own. The type had crystallized in ancient Rome, and those of medieval condotierri, from Gattamelata to Paolo Savelli, had always stood alone in a hostile world. But now the armored warrior on his rearing horse moves in a pastoral ambit, like the nymphs of Poussin.
Firearms had democratized war. Bureaucracy had begun to weigh upon the shoulders of the monarch, and personal valor was now of less importance than the administration of the treasury. “Since the appearance of machines that killed from afar, individual valor was seen to be less relevant,” writes the mocking and melancholy Burckhardt.
Achilles despised those who did not fight hand to hand. Greek warriors of the heroic age could hardly conceive any other kind of fight. Apollo, the most perverse of the Olympian gods, is the one who kills from afar, be it with the plague he inflicted on Thebes, or with the arrows of the archers, his despised protégés. If the god who kills from afar can bring down the noble warrior with a cheap shot, then the right way to portray that warrior is in a twilight meadow, with armor of bronze and gold — the melancholy figure of a pastoral poem.
LEMONDE.FR – Hubert Guillaud (English Translation) (Link Above w/English Video)
To Dan Ariely , who popularized the theory of behavioral economics , author of international bestseller Why did I decide (blog ), the economic crisis of 2008 is proof that our decisions even in matters of money, are not all rational, as he claims long time. But if the rational approach to the market can not protect us from ourselves, what model do we use it, it asks Karen Christensen in Business ?
Err is human: PROGRESS NEEDS TO BE BETTER MANAGED
“The rational model is workable. It is not perfect, but it is the best model we have “, acknowledges the researcher. “However, what would our highways if they had been designed by economists rational? We would have no emergency lane because we would not have needed to pave a road where nobody was supposed to drive. We would have no lines to demarcate lanes or speed limits if people were as rational being would believe. “If there is only one way to be rational, there as much to be irrational. And our irrationalities lead to numerous problems that evolve over time and by what technologies are used and that the company constantly tries to address. To answer the speed of our cars, we have designed airbags, safety belts and speed limits. At the mobile phone, we need new rules to tell people not to drive by calling …
Nous ne sommes pas rationnels. We are not rational. “The fact is that we may do a lot of decision errors, and, as we invent new technologies, new financial instruments or other means immersing ourselves in trouble, we generate more risks. Progress still needs to be better managed, better managed. “As we make mistakes, we must think about how to prevent them, how to limit them.
The director of the Research Group on e-rationality of MIT , we do not know what we want as we do not see it in context. And this relativism has an impact on our decision making process. For example, we compare ourselves constantly to others, like sea elephant sea elephants want to be bigger than the others, because when you are the biggest, you attract more females. But as the species has become larger, it has also experienced numerous health complications, which partly explains his disappearance …
IDENTIFYING THROUGH OUR LIMIT FOR
For Ariely, through our worst based on the power of our habits. “When we face a new environment, we constantly make decisions. They can be made in a thoughtful way or not, they can be made on the basis of real information or not, but when we are again faced with this environment, we remember what we did last time. We do not necessarily remember why, but we tend to repeat our previous decisions again and again. “In a supermarket, you try a fruit juice at half the price for a while. Then you go back because you’re used to it, even if its price is not as advantageous.
Our second is through our inability to manage our conflicts of interest. Imagine yourself as a doctor with two treatments for your patient, Plan A and Plan B. Plan A is better for the patient, plan B is better for you. Can we look at these two options objectively? No, says Ariely, provided we can rationally want to be. “All we can do is try to eliminate situations that promote conflict of interest.” To him, we must work to reduce conflicts of interest in our financial systems, our health systems and politics. Enhancing our understanding of human nature, its strengths and weaknesses, we find ways to limit the cost of its weaknesses.
We all suffer from the syndrome of false planning: it is to promise to ourselves to finish anything in a given time, what we do rarely. Thus, when we expect to return home earlier, there is always a reason to delay that we have not taken into account … For an hour out of work would be required to leave earlier! , says. The same is true for our personal finances: we do not know estimate unexpected expenses. But if you look over time, they represent about 20% of our budgets. If they are properly analyzed, it might be better managed, the researcher suggests …
The groups have attributes that minimize their ability to make sound decisions, related to authority and conformity in particular. Dan Ariely and his colleagues had created a few years ago a software “antigroupware (. pdf) , to try to remove the maximum effects of these groups. With this software, people made decisions anonymously without anyone being able to know their vote: you could not vote or give your vote to someone that you thought most likely to make the decision because the more you aware of the problem example. Taking such measures may allow the potential of a group to flourish. “What we need in any case it is a massive intervention that promotes the benefits of groups, no hidden costs.
“Of course, this is a difficult mission to say that we can change how we think without stopping.” Many of our intuitions are wrong, he reminded TED 2009 . But it remains difficult to test the validity of intuition and more to believe or accept that it may be false. Yet again, most things that we think are not rational.
Sunday Museum Visits
The City of Paris preserves the two places where Victor Hugo lived the longest.
The apartment on the second floor of the Hotel de Rohan Guemenee, upVosges in Paris he rented for sixteen years (1832 to 1848) and Hauteville House, where he gained one house lived for fifteen years of exile in Guernsey (from 1856 to 1870).
The museum, Place des Vosges was founded in 1902, the centenary of the birth of Victor Hugo, at the initiative of Paul Meurice (1818-1905), longtime friend and ardent supporter of Hugo and his work, and thanks to the generous donation he made while at the City of Paris. First museum monographic literature, the Maison de Victor Hugo holds the funds of manuscripts and graphic works of Victor Hugo’s largest with the National Library of France.
Hôtel de Rohan-Guéménée
6, place des Vosges
Tél. : 01 42 72 10 16
Fax. : 01 42 72 06 64
Open from 10h to 18h Tuesday to Sunday except Mondays and holidays. Entrance free permanent collections.
Hugo House Museum
The Hôtel de Rohan
Guéménée, Place des Vosges
Victor Hugo was thirty years old when he moved into the 2nd floor of the Hôtel de Rohan–Guéménée with his wife Adèle Foucher and their four children: Léopoldine, Charles, François–Victor and Adèle.
By this time, he had already written the play “Bataille d’Hernani” and enjoyed widespread success with his novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame.
A living and writing place
In the function rooms overlooking the former Place Royale (today Place des Vosges), he received visits from Gautier, Vigny, Lamartine, Sainte-Beuve, Dumas, Mérimée, the Devéria brothers, Nanteuil, David d’Angers, amongst others. There, he wrote some of his major works:
Marie-Tudor, Ruy Blas, The Burgraves, Les Chants du crépuscule, Les Voix intérieures, Les Rayons et les Ombres, a large part of Les Misérables, the beginning of La Légende des Siècles and Contemplations.
Over this period, he met Juliette Drouet, he became a Fellow of the French Academy, a pair de France (member of the French Peerage) and was a member of the Legislative Assembly, he also lost his daughter Léopoldine who tragically drowned in Villequier at 19 years of age, seven months after her marriage.
The birth of a museum
1902, the year marking one hundred years since Victor Hugo’s birth, is also the year that the museum was founded following a large donation made to the City of Paris by Paul Meurice, a long-standing friend of the poet’s. From the antechamber, which brings back memories of his youth, to the bedchamber where he died (Avenue Victor Hugo), including a trip through the red chamber, the Chinese chamber and the medieval-style dining room he designed in Guernesey for Juliette Drouet, the visit to the apartments follows three major stages which, according to him, punctuated his life:
Before exile, During exile, After exile. The first floor is reserved for temporary collections and for the display of collections: written and graphical works by Victor Hugo, illustrations of his works by other artists of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Presented alternately with temporary exhibitions, the collections of Victor Hugo’s House are not limited solely to the works of the apartments. The poet’s drawings and drawings which illustrate his works, paintings, old and contemporary photographs, books and manuscripts, documentary collections and family objects all come together to make an exceptionally rich heritage.
The acquisition process for the collections is a reflection of the extraordinary diversity of Hugo’s work and is not only a sign of vitality for the museum but also a guarantee of the loyalty to its purpose which was highlighted in 2007 with the one-off slogan “Ten years of acquisitions”.
Exhibitions over time…
Each year, the poet’s work is showcased through exhibitions organised in cooperation with many prestigious lenders such as the Louvre, the Musée d’Orsay, the Rodin museum, and with major institutions abroad.
The genius of Victor Hugo can be seen in various fields: photography “En collaboration avec le soleil”, “Dans l’intimité de Victor Hugo”, his graphical works with “Du chaos dans le pinceau”, “L’esprit de la lettre”; through more biographical exhibitions such as “Hugo vu par Rodin”, “Juliette Drouet ”, or through exhibitions focusing on his written works, such as “Les Misérables, un roman inconnu”.
Victor Hugo’s house (during his exile)
In1851, Hugo left for exile. After spending a few months in Brussels and three years in Jersey, he settled in 1855, in Guernsey, where, thanks to the success of Contemplations, he purchased Hauteville House, a large white house with a garden overlooking the sea.
An enthusiast of second-hand markets and gifted with a boundless imagination, Victor Hugo spent many a month on the interior fitting out and decoration, giving the unique house a feel of inner force and mystery. It is there that he wrote some of his masterpieces:
La Légende des Siècles, Les Misérables, Toilers of the Sea, The Man who Laughs, etc. He returned to France in 1870, making some trips to Hauteville House in subsequent years. In March 1927, the centenary year of the Romantic movement, Hugo’s descendants donated the house to the City of Paris. Hauteville House has been preserved exactly as it was. It bears witness to Hugo’s abundant creativity.
Earthenware in a corridor, Delft tiles in the dining room, a jumble of styles, from the Baroque red chamber to the oriental blue chamber, from the oak gallery to the library landing and the famous little “Crystal Palace” Looks-out, where he wrote, standing up, facing the sea. In 2002, to mark the bicentenary of the writer’s birth, the garden was opened to the public.
(English Translation) (Note Excellent Zoom Viewing @ Above Link)
In 1829 Victor Hugo published Les Orientales. From the preface of his collection, the poet reminds us that the East, with its dazzling colors purple and tan, glowing in its color palette of gold and fire, occupies all thoughts and dreams of his contemporaries. With the exhibition Les Orientales, a hundred outstanding works – paintings, sculptures and drawings – are met from March 26 to July 4, 2010.
The poems have haste and watered steel swords, the palpitation of a reflection on the pearly flesh of concubines, and the darkness that lights up in the apple of Spahis. The melee rhythm and feel of this poetic language beats in unison with all the sighs, all the cries of all the songs of the Greek heroes, sultans defeated, pashas cruel, captives and warriors about their ” mares disheveled “…
Who will decide between the East and the West? And another of yourself? “It wobbles and paint color unknown.
This chromatic material and sound Hugo’s the Word finds its echo as its reverberation l’orientalisme naissant de Géricault et de Girodet puis de Delacroix, de Descamps, de Colin, de Boulanger, de Chassériau. For the East of the soul, dark and dazzling at times, is common to a whole generation of writers and artists.
Les 4 parties de l’exposition sont une invocation :
For large precursors that are the poets, explorers, travelers and conquerors alike: Bonaparte and his expedition – Egypt! Egypt! – Chateaubriand, whose “Journey from Paris to Jerusalem and from Jerusalem to Paris” opens the path of all trips in the East of painters and writers of the nineteenth century, Lord Byron, whose commitment to the Greek epics and Eastern lead all European Romanticism in the race (Delacroix, Ary Scheffer, Géricault).
At the news of the war of Greek independence against the Turks (Delacroix, Ary Scheffer, Descamps, Diaz de la Pena, Gericault, David d’Angers), which occupies the entire first part of the collection, poems warriors, caught the momentum of heroic figures. An outstanding collection of portraits (Girodet-Gericault, Delacroix, Mr Bonnington-August), for the first time together, reflects the fascination of artists, around 1820-1830 for the ardor of the dark figure of the East .
At a certain wild grace … Released in London in 1819, Byron’s poem Mazeppa is needed in epic Inspiration – “Genie, fiery steed! (Victor Hugo). Fauves, stallions and riders transfigure the rugged beauty of the poem in tangible substance or paint (Gericault, Delacroix, Boulanger, Vernet, Barye).
In the spell of the beautiful captive harem – of “captive” to “Nourmahal the Redhead” and “Sarah the bather” to “Lazzara,” the sparkling sounds and colors unveils “that obscure object of desire” (Delacroix, Colin, Deveria, Boulanger, Chassériau)
The exhibition brings together a hundred outstanding works, some of which have never been presented, from French and foreign public collections (the Louvre, Orsay, National Library, museums of Lyon, Lille, Besançon, Angers, Fabre Museum, British Museum, Narodny Gallery, National Gallery of Athens, Benaki Museum, Museum of Charleroi) and private collections.
A set of illustrated books and engravings (Denon, Cassas, Dupre, De Launay) reports of cities and landscapes that travelers have delivered to the imagination and dreams of readers, including Victor Hugo!
“Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Modern Century” runs from Sunday through June 28 at the Museum of Modern Art; moma.org. It travels to the Art Institute of Chicago (July 24 to Oct. 3); the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (Oct. 30 to Jan. 30); and the High Museum of Art in Atlanta (Feb. 19 to May 15).
By Jana Winter
(FOXNews.com) – Al Qaeda has put the American and British soccer teams directly in its cross hairs, circulating word online that the athletes are prime targets for an attack at the World Cup Games in South Africa in June, FOXNews.com reported Friday.
The threats from al Qaeda target a range of teams competing at the World Cup, but the June 12 USA vs. England match, scheduled for live broadcast, is the terrorists’ top priority, according to threats published in an online Jihadist magazine.
“The game … is broadcast live. The stadium is full of a Crusader audience while the sound of a blast shocks the stands and turns the stadium on its head. God willing, there will [be] dozens and hundreds of casualties. 50 grams alone are sufficient for such an operation,” reads a post on the online magazine.
The South African Ministry of Police said it was aware of the threats, and the U.S. State Department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security said it was providing support as the host country beefs up security in preparation for the tournament.
“Diplomatic Security’s Office of Anti-Terrorism Assistance has provided training to the South African Police Service in the run up to the 2010 World Cup,” a Diplomatic Security official said in a statement to FoxNews.com.
The jihadist article said al Qaeda will focus on striking countries taking part in the “Zionist-Crusader campaign on Islam,” and it specifically mentioned the American, British, Nigerian, Slovenian, French, German and Italian teams as targets. The jihadist author, Ubada bin Al-Samit, said nothing could be done to prevent the attack.
South African Police Minister Nathi Mthethwa said his force has been preparing for any potential threats since 2004.